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Pioneers Bibliography

Biography References

Note: Each biography included in the women pioneers’ directory was approved by the woman pioneer herself (if she is still alive). The references for these biographies are listed below.

  1. African Heritage. (2012, August 6). Sameera Moussa: World-renowned Egyptian Nuclear Scientist.
    Retrieved from
  2. Al Arabiya English. (2018). Somayya Jabarti. Retrieved from
  3. Al Arashi, Fakhri. (2013). Yemen Loses a Great Female Leader. Retrieved from
  4. Al Jazeera World. (2018, March 21). May Ziade: The Life of an Arab Feminist Writer. Retrieved from
  5. Al-Khaja, Nayla. (2018).
  6. Al-Lail, Haifa. (2018).
  7. Al-Youm, Al-Masry. (2014, January 12). This day in history: Mother of Egyptians Safeya Zaghloul dies in 1946. Retrieved from
  8. Albilad Press. (2012, February 23). Foundation for Childcare and Motherhood Commemorates the Death of Salwa Al-Omran. Retrieved from
  9. Alwasat News. (2010, November 23). Salwa Al-Omran. Retrieved from
  10. American University of Beirut. (2017). For All Conditions of Men: Stories of Women at AUB.
  11. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Aisha Abdel Rahman. Retrieved from
  12. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Malak Hifni Nasif. Retrieved from
  13. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Malika al-Fasi. Retrieved from
  14. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Nabaweya Musa. Retrieved from
  15. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Zaynab Fawwaz. Retrieved from
  16. Ashrawi, Hanan. (2018).
  17. Babas, Latifa. (2018, August 3). Touria Chaoui, Morocco’s first female pilot and daring teenager. Retrieved from
  18. Badreya Mubarak Sultan Al-Ammari. (2017, August 24). Amna Mahmoud Al-Jaydah, a pioneer in the struggle for female education. In Qatar: a biographical research study, History of Education, 46(5), 674-691.
  19. Belarbi, Aicha. (2018).
  20. Beltaib, Mohamed. (2016, December 22). Tunisia's First Female Doctor: The Life of Tawhida Belsheikh. Retrieved from
  21. Bezirgan, B. Q. (1977). Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak (E. W. Fernea, Ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
  22. Blaise, Lilia. (2018, June 12). Maya Jribi, Tunisian Fighter for Democracy, Is Dead at 58. Retrieved from
  23. Chadid, Merieme. (2018).
  24. Devi, Gayatri. (2015, December 18). Fatima Mernissi Obituary. Retrieved from 
  25. Elmasry, Mohammad. (2013, April 10). Ghanima Al-Marzouq: A woman like no other. Retrieved from
  26. Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Assia Djebar. Retrieved from
  27. Freeman, S. T., PhD, & Kruvant, M. C. (2015). Successful Saudi Arabian Women: Their Gems of Wisdom. Washington, DC: Creative Associates.
  28. Haykal Media. (2013). Dr. Najah Saati, the first female graduate from the Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University in 1949. Retrieved from
  29. Ignite: Global Fund for Women. (2014). Sameera Moussa. Retrieved from
  30. Jaffer, Jennifer. (2018). Huda Sharawi: Egyptian Feminist and Nationalist. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from
  31. Joffe, Lawrence (2003, December 14). Fadwa Tuqan: Palestinian poet who captured her nation's sense of loss and defiance. Retrieved from
  32. Liukkonen, Petri & Ari Pesonen (2008). Nazik al-Mala’ika. Retrieved from
  33. Mrowat, Ahmad. (2007). Karimeh Abbud: Early Woman Photographer (1896-1955). In Journal of Palestine Studies, 1(31), 72-78. Retrieved from
  34. NYU. (n.d.). Nawal El Saadawi is a leading Egyptian feminist, sociologist, medical doctor, and and militant writer on Arab women’s problems. Retrieved from
  35. Shaarawi, Huda. (1998). Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist (1879-1924) (Margot Badran, Trans.). Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.
  36. Sharma, Ishani (2012, April). Leaving Her Footprint Women’s Struggle for Power in French Syria & Lebanon 1920-1936. Rutgers University. Retrieved from
  37. Stephan, Rita. (2010, December). Couple's activism in Lebanon: The legacy of Laure Moghaizel. Women's Studies International Forum, 33(6), 533-541.
  38. Stewart, Ashleigh. (2018, March 11). Saudi mountaineer Raha Moharrak on influencing women at home and abroad, and finding her next Everest. Retrieved from
  39. Syrian History. (2013). Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University, with its first female graduate, in 1930. Retrieved from
  40. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Marguerite Taos Amrouche. Retrieved from
  41. Think Marketing. (2014, October 29.) Lotfia El Nadi – Egypt’s First Female AviatorFeatured by Google. Retrieved from
  42. United States Marine Corps. (n.d.) Government and Politics. In Tunisia: A County Study (p. 248). Retrieved from
  43. Vinson, P. H., & Golley, N. A. (2012). Challenges and Opportunities: The Women’s Movement in Syria. In P. Arenfeldt (Ed.), Mapping Arab Women's Movements: A Century of Transformations from Within (pp. 65-92). Cairo, Egypt: American University of Cairo Press.
  44. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, May 2). Raufa Hassan al-Sharki. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
  45. Wikipedia contributors. (2017, December 11). Saniya Habboub. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.  Retrieved from
  46. Wikipedia contributors. (2017, December 31). Nazik al-Abid. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
  47. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, February 19). Fethia Mzali. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
  48. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, June 23). Naziha al-Dulaimi. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.  Retrieved from
  49. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, October 27). Doria Shafik. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
  50. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, November 10). Ina'am Al-Mufti. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
  51. Women’s Islamic Initiative in Spirituality and Equality. (2018). Judge Kholoud Al-Faqih. Retrieved from

Image References:

  1. Afrah Nasser. (2011, April 29). Dr. Raufa Hassan is one in a million. Retrieved from
  2. Aicha Belarbi. (2015, June 2). Retrieved from
  3. Aisha Abdel-Rahman. (2015, March 2). Retrieved from
  4. Al Khaja, Nayla. (2018).
  5. American University of Beirut. (2017). For All Conditions of Men: Stories of Women atAUB.
  6. Ashrawi, Hanan. (2018).
  7. Assia Djebar. (2017, June 30). Retrieved from
  8. Beyond Death. (2018, February 13). Fethia Mzali ✮ RIP ✮ February 2018 ✮ InMemorian VIDEO ✮ Celebrity ✮ Beyond Death. [Video Screenshot] Retrieved from
  9. Bezirgan, B. Q. (1977). Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak (E. W. Fernea, Ed.).Austin: University of Texas Press.
  10. Celebratingamazingwomen. (2016, November 14). Ramziya Al-Iryani. Retrieved from
  11. Chadid, Merieme. (2019).
  12. D.R. (n.d.). Marguerite Taos Amrouche. Retrieved from
  13. Dr. Haifa Jamal Al Lail. (2016). Retrieved from
  14. Dr. Najah Saati. (2017, February 16). Retrieved from
  15. Dr. Naziha Al-Dulaimi. (2007, October 16). Retrieved from
  16. Fadwa Tuqan [Photograph found in My Poetic Side]. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  17. Fatema Mernissi. (2015, March 20). Retrieved from
  18. Ghanima Al-Marzouq. (2013, March 20). Retrieved from
  19. Harsløf, I. (n.d.). Anissa Najjar speaking at WILPF’s Triennial Congress in Australia in1989.
  20. Heikkinen, Hannu. (n.d.). The pioneer journalist Mary Ajamy, a nursing student fromAUB, who founded the first womens magazine in Syria in 1910 called al-Arus (The Bride). Retrieved from
  21. Huda Shaarawi in Midlife. (2011). In S. Sharawi Lanfranchi (Author), Casting Off theVeil. I.B. Tauris.
  22. Idle Wild Films. (2018, April 19). Kholoud Al-Faqih in the documentary “The Judge.”Retrieved from
  23. Inaam Asad Qaddura Al-Mufti. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  24. Karimeh Abbud. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  25. Kelisli. (2013, September 1). Safeya Zaghloul (nee’ Fehmy) 1878-1946. Retrieved from
  26. Laure Moghaizel [Photograph found in Archive Photos, OLJ]. (2018, August 3).Retrieved from
  27. Malak Hifni Nasif. (2015, March 2). Retrieved from
  28. Malika AL Fassi. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  29. Maya Jribi. (n.d.). In S. Girap (Author). Retrieved from
  30. Myrna Bustani [Photograph found in Congrès Boustani Website]. (2018). Retrieved from
  31. Moharrak, Raha. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  32. Nawal El Saadawi. (2017, August 9). Retrieved from
  33. Nazik Al-Mala’ika. (2015, March 2). Retrieved from
  34. Rihani, May. (2018).
  35. Royalsociety. (2018, March 3). “Egyptian scientist Sameera Moussa, who dedicated herlife to make medical nuclear power affordable to all, born #onthisday 1917 #womeninstem” [Twitter post] Retrieved from
  36. Salwa Nassar. (n.d.) Retrieved from
  37. Somayya Jabarti. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  38. Tawhida Belsheikh. (2016, December 22). Retrieved from
  39. Ternovoy, Dmitry (n.d.). Zaha Hadid in Heydar Aliyev Cultural center in Baku nov 2013.Retrieved from (Originally photographed 2013, November 5)
  40. The first woman to graduate with a law degree from Damascus University in 1944,Syria's celebrated novelist, poet, and woman activist Maqbula al-Shalak (1921-1986) [Photograph found in Syrian History]. (n.d.). Retrieved from women
  41. Touria Chaoui. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  42. Undated photograph of Saloua Raouda Choucair. (n.d.). Saloua Raouda ChouchairFoundation.
  43. Wikipedia Contributors (n.d.). Doria Shafik. Retrieved from  
  44. Wikipedia Contributors (n.d.). Lotfia Elnadi. Retrieved from
  45. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.). May Ziadé. Retrieved from
  46. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.). Nabawiyya Musa. Retrieved from
  47. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.) Nazik Abed. Retrieved from
  48. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.). Photograph of Maryana Marrash2. Retrieved from
  49. Xiquet. (2008, June 1). Merieme Chadid. Retrieved from
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