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Pioneers Bibliography

Biography References

Note: Each biography included in the women pioneers’ directory was approved by the woman pioneer herself (if she is still alive). The references for these biographies are listed below.

  1. African Heritage. (2012, August 6). Sameera Moussa: World-renowned Egyptian Nuclear Scientist.
    Retrieved from https://afrolegends.com/2012/08/06/sameera-moussa-world-renowned-egyptian-nuclear-scientist/
  2. Al Arabiya English. (2018). Somayya Jabarti. Retrieved from https://english.alarabiya.net/authors/Somayya-Jabarti.html
  3. Al Arashi, Fakhri. (2013). Yemen Loses a Great Female Leader. Retrieved from https://nationalyemen.com/2013/11/17/yemen-losses-a-great-female-leader/
  4. Al Jazeera World. (2018, March 21). May Ziade: The Life of an Arab Feminist Writer. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/aljazeeraworld/2018/03/ziade-life-Arab-feminist-writer-180318140908795.html
  5. Al-Khaja, Nayla. (2018).
  6. Al-Lail, Haifa. (2018).
  7. Al-Youm, Al-Masry. (2014, January 12). This day in history: Mother of Egyptians Safeya Zaghloul dies in 1946. Retrieved from http://www.egyptindependent.com/day-history-mother-egyptians-safeya-zaghloul-dies-1946/
  8. Albilad Press. (2012, February 23). Foundation for Childcare and Motherhood Commemorates the Death of Salwa Al-Omran. Retrieved from http://www.albiladpress.com/article131842-1.html
  9. Alwasat News. (2010, November 23). Salwa Al-Omran. Retrieved from http://www.alwasatnews.com/news/511757.html
  10. American University of Beirut. (2017). For All Conditions of Men: Stories of Women at AUB.
  11. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Aisha Abdel Rahman. Retrieved from http://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/a/aisha-abdel-rahman
  12. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Malak Hifni Nasif. Retrieved from http://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/m/malak-hifni-nasif
  13. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Malika al-Fasi. Retrieved from http://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/m/malika-al-fasi
  14. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Nabaweya Musa. Retrieved from  http://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/n/nabaweya-musa
  15. Arab Women Writers. (2015, March 2). Zaynab Fawwaz. Retrieved from http://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/z/zaynab-fawwaz
  16. Ashrawi, Hanan. (2018).
  17. Babas, Latifa. (2018, August 3). Touria Chaoui, Morocco’s first female pilot and daring teenager. Retrieved from https://en.yabiladi.com/articles/details/62569/touria-chaoui-morocco-s-first-female.html
  18. Badreya Mubarak Sultan Al-Ammari. (2017, August 24). Amna Mahmoud Al-Jaydah, a pioneer in the struggle for female education. In Qatar: a biographical research study, History of Education, 46(5), 674-691.
  19. Belarbi, Aicha. (2018).
  20. Beltaib, Mohamed. (2016, December 22). Tunisia's First Female Doctor: The Life of Tawhida Belsheikh. Retrieved from https://raseef22.com/en/life/2016/12/22/tunisias-first-female-doctor-life-tawhida-belsheikh/
  21. Bezirgan, B. Q. (1977). Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak (E. W. Fernea, Ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
  22. Blaise, Lilia. (2018, June 12). Maya Jribi, Tunisian Fighter for Democracy, Is Dead at 58. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/12/obituaries/maya-jribi-tunisian-fighter-democracy-freedom-dies-at-58.html
  23. Chadid, Merieme. (2018).
  24. Devi, Gayatri. (2015, December 18). Fatima Mernissi Obituary. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/18/fatima-mernissi-obituary 
  25. Elmasry, Mohammad. (2013, April 10). Ghanima Al-Marzouq: A woman like no other. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadiancharger.com/page.php?id=5&a=1477
  26. Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Assia Djebar. Retrieved from  https://www.britannica.com/biography/Assia-Djebar
  27. Freeman, S. T., PhD, & Kruvant, M. C. (2015). Successful Saudi Arabian Women: Their Gems of Wisdom. Washington, DC: Creative Associates.
  28. Haykal Media. (2013). Dr. Najah Saati, the first female graduate from the Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University in 1949. Retrieved from http://www.syrianhistory.com/en/photos/2570
  29. Ignite: Global Fund for Women. (2014). Sameera Moussa. Retrieved from http://ignite.globalfundforwomen.org/be-the-spark/sameera-moussa
  30. Jaffer, Jennifer. (2018). Huda Sharawi: Egyptian Feminist and Nationalist. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Huda-Sharawi
  31. Joffe, Lawrence (2003, December 14). Fadwa Tuqan: Palestinian poet who captured her nation's sense of loss and defiance. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/dec/15/guardianobituaries.israel
  32. Liukkonen, Petri & Ari Pesonen (2008). Nazik al-Mala’ika. Retrieved from http://authorscalendar.info/malaika.htm
  33. Mrowat, Ahmad. (2007). Karimeh Abbud: Early Woman Photographer (1896-1955). In Journal of Palestine Studies, 1(31), 72-78. Retrieved from https://www.palestine-studies.org/jq/fulltext/77884
  34. NYU. (n.d.). Nawal El Saadawi is a leading Egyptian feminist, sociologist, medical doctor, and and militant writer on Arab women’s problems. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/classes/keefer/twenty/nawal.html
  35. Shaarawi, Huda. (1998). Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist (1879-1924) (Margot Badran, Trans.). Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.
  36. Sharma, Ishani (2012, April). Leaving Her Footprint Women’s Struggle for Power in French Syria & Lebanon 1920-1936. Rutgers University. Retrieved from https://history.rutgers.edu/docman-docs/undergraduate/honors-papers-2012/409-leaving-her-footprint-women-s-struggle-for-power-in-french-syria-lebanon-1920-1936/file
  37. Stephan, Rita. (2010, December). Couple's activism in Lebanon: The legacy of Laure Moghaizel. Women's Studies International Forum, 33(6), 533-541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2010.09.009
  38. Stewart, Ashleigh. (2018, March 11). Saudi mountaineer Raha Moharrak on influencing women at home and abroad, and finding her next Everest. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/lifestyle/saudi-mountaineer-raha-moharrak-on-influencing-women-at-home-and-abroad-and-finding-her-next-everest-1.712173
  39. Syrian History. (2013). Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University, with its first female graduate, in 1930. Retrieved from http://www.syrianhistory.com/en/photos/2895?tag=Laurice+Maher
  40. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Marguerite Taos Amrouche. Retrieved from  https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marguerite-Taos-Amrouche
  41. Think Marketing. (2014, October 29.) Lotfia El Nadi – Egypt’s First Female AviatorFeatured by Google. Retrieved from https://thinkmarketingmagazine.com/lotfia-el-nadi-egypts-first-female-aviator-featured-by-google/
  42. United States Marine Corps. (n.d.) Government and Politics. In Tunisia: A County Study (p. 248). Retrieved from https://www.marines.mil/Portals/59/Publications/Tunisia%20Study_3.pdf
  43. Vinson, P. H., & Golley, N. A. (2012). Challenges and Opportunities: The Women’s Movement in Syria. In P. Arenfeldt (Ed.), Mapping Arab Women's Movements: A Century of Transformations from Within (pp. 65-92). Cairo, Egypt: American University of Cairo Press.
  44. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, May 2). Raufa Hassan al-Sharki. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raufa_Hassan_al-Sharki
  45. Wikipedia contributors. (2017, December 11). Saniya Habboub. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.  Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saniya_Habboub
  46. Wikipedia contributors. (2017, December 31). Nazik al-Abid. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazik_al-Abid
  47. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, February 19). Fethia Mzali. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fethia_Mzali
  48. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, June 23). Naziha al-Dulaimi. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.  Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naziha_al-Dulaimi
  49. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, October 27). Doria Shafik. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doria_Shafik
  50. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, November 10). Ina'am Al-Mufti. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ina%27am_Al-Mufti
  51. Women’s Islamic Initiative in Spirituality and Equality. (2018). Judge Kholoud Al-Faqih. Retrieved from https://www.wisemuslimwomen.org/muslim-woman/judge-kholoud-al-faqih/

Image References:

  1. Afrah Nasser. (2011, April 29). Dr. Raufa Hassan is one in a million. Retrieved fromhttp://afrahnasser.blogspot.com/2011/04/dr-raufa-hassan-is-one-in-million.html
  2. Aicha Belarbi. (2015, June 2). Retrieved fromhttps://www.iea-nantes.fr/en/news/lecture-by-aicha-belarbi-the-changing-status-of-moroccan-women-from-1956-from-the-fight-for-education-and-health-to-the-fight-for-equality-and-parity_571
  3. Aisha Abdel-Rahman. (2015, March 2). Retrieved fromhttp://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/a/aisha-abdel-rahman
  4. Al Khaja, Nayla. (2018).
  5. American University of Beirut. (2017). For All Conditions of Men: Stories of Women atAUB.
  6. Ashrawi, Hanan. (2018).
  7. Assia Djebar. (2017, June 30). Retrieved fromhttps://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/assia-djebar-algeria-immortal-literary-hero-170630073650868.html
  8. Beyond Death. (2018, February 13). Fethia Mzali ✮ RIP ✮ February 2018 ✮ InMemorian VIDEO ✮ Celebrity ✮ Beyond Death. [Video Screenshot] Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhFui40ab7g
  9. Bezirgan, B. Q. (1977). Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak (E. W. Fernea, Ed.).Austin: University of Texas Press.
  10. Celebratingamazingwomen. (2016, November 14). Ramziya Al-Iryani. Retrieved fromhttps://celebratingamazingwomen.tumblr.com/post/153168330372/ramziya-al-iryani-d-1954-2013-was-a-pioneer
  11. Chadid, Merieme. (2019).
  12. D.R. (n.d.). Marguerite Taos Amrouche. Retrieved fromhttps://www.liberte-algerie.com/culture/le-poete-kamel-drici-ressuscite-lame-de-marguerite-taos-amrouche-283003
  13. Dr. Haifa Jamal Al Lail. (2016). Retrieved fromhttps://www.thebusinessyear.com/saudi-arabia-2016/class-in-the-kingdom/interview
  14. Dr. Najah Saati. (2017, February 16). Retrieved fromhttps://ayyamsyria.net/archives/193692
  15. Dr. Naziha Al-Dulaimi. (2007, October 16). Retrieved fromhttps://www.peoplesworld.org/article/iraqi-communist-party-mourns-dr-naziha-al-dulaimi/
  16. Fadwa Tuqan [Photograph found in My Poetic Side]. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttps://mypoeticside.com/poets/fadwa-touqan-poems
  17. Fatema Mernissi. (2015, March 20). Retrieved fromhttps://www.goodreads.com/author/show/2792382.Fatema_Mernissi
  18. Ghanima Al-Marzouq. (2013, March 20). Retrieved fromhttps://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticlePrintPage.aspx?id=2299544&language=en
  19. Harsløf, I. (n.d.). Anissa Najjar speaking at WILPF’s Triennial Congress in Australia in1989.
  20. Heikkinen, Hannu. (n.d.). The pioneer journalist Mary Ajamy, a nursing student fromAUB, who founded the first womens magazine in Syria in 1910 called al-Arus (The Bride). Retrieved from https://slideplayer.com/slide/14138287/
  21. Huda Shaarawi in Midlife. (2011). In S. Sharawi Lanfranchi (Author), Casting Off theVeil. I.B. Tauris.
  22. Idle Wild Films. (2018, April 19). Kholoud Al-Faqih in the documentary “The Judge.”Retrieved from https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/la-et-mn-the-judge-review-20180419-story.html
  23. Inaam Asad Qaddura Al-Mufti. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://archive.is/Q3mVb
  24. Karimeh Abbud. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://daratalfunun.org/?event=karimeh-abbud
  25. Kelisli. (2013, September 1). Safeya Zaghloul (nee’ Fehmy) 1878-1946. Retrieved fromhttps://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/9647077629/
  26. Laure Moghaizel [Photograph found in Archive Photos, OLJ]. (2018, August 3).Retrieved from https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1103671/ces-8-femmes-auxquelles-le-liban-doit-presque-tout.html
  27. Malak Hifni Nasif. (2015, March 2). Retrieved fromhttp://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/m/malak-hifni-nasif
  28. Malika AL Fassi. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttps://www.zoom-blab.com/moroccan-historical-women/
  29. Maya Jribi. (n.d.). In S. Girap (Author). Retrieved from https://alchetron.com/Maya-Jribi
  30. Myrna Bustani [Photograph found in Congrès Boustani Website]. (2018). Retrieved fromhttp://boustanicongress.com/fr/node/154
  31. Moharrak, Raha. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://twitter.com/rahamoharrak
  32. Nawal El Saadawi. (2017, August 9). Retrieved fromhttps://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2017/08/225715/nawal-el-saadawi-named-guest-of-honor-at-tangiers-twiza-festival/
  33. Nazik Al-Mala’ika. (2015, March 2). Retrieved fromhttp://www.arabwomenwriters.com/index.php/2014-05-03-16-01-55/n/nazik-al-malaika
  34. Rihani, May. (2018).
  35. Royalsociety. (2018, March 3). “Egyptian scientist Sameera Moussa, who dedicated herlife to make medical nuclear power affordable to all, born #onthisday 1917 #womeninstem http://ow.ly/CZPW309xYhk” [Twitter post] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/royalsociety/status/969890310879838208
  36. Salwa Nassar. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.lau.edu.lb/about/history/presidents.php
  37. Somayya Jabarti. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttps://english.alarabiya.net/authors/Somayya-Jabarti.html
  38. Tawhida Belsheikh. (2016, December 22). Retrieved fromhttps://raseef22.com/en/life/2016/12/22/tunisias-first-female-doctor-life-tawhida-belsheikh/
  39. Ternovoy, Dmitry (n.d.). Zaha Hadid in Heydar Aliyev Cultural center in Baku nov 2013.Retrieved from https://terranova.viewbook.com/album/portraits.html (Originally photographed 2013, November 5)
  40. The first woman to graduate with a law degree from Damascus University in 1944,Syria's celebrated novelist, poet, and woman activist Maqbula al-Shalak (1921-1986) [Photograph found in Syrian History]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.syrianhistory.com/en?page=3&tag=Syrian women
  41. Touria Chaoui. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttps://www.zoom-blab.com/moroccan-historical-women
  42. Undated photograph of Saloua Raouda Choucair. (n.d.). Saloua Raouda ChouchairFoundation.
  43. Wikipedia Contributors (n.d.). Doria Shafik. Retrieved from            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doria_Shafik
  44. Wikipedia Contributors (n.d.). Lotfia Elnadi. Retrieved fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotfia_Elnadi
  45. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.). May Ziadé. Retrieved fromhttps://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_Ziad%C3%A9
  46. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.). Nabawiyya Musa. Retrieved fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabawiyya_Musa
  47. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.) Nazik Abed. Retrieved fromhttps://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%83_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%AF
  48. Wikipedia Contributors. (n.d.). Photograph of Maryana Marrash2. Retrieved fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryana_Marrash#/media/File:Photograph_of_Maryana_Marrash2.jpg
  49. Xiquet. (2008, June 1). Merieme Chadid. Retrieved from     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merieme_Chadid#/media/File:Merieme_Chadid.jpg
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